Over the past 100 years asphalt shingle has been manufacturing to be utilized in roofing. Shingles have been made up of cotton rags with the coating of asphalt and slate particles overlaying. In the beginning of 1960s, these asphalt shingles were made by fiber mats in the base which made asphalt shingles much lighter and they were enabler to hold back the detrimental moisture. Later, the modification in mats and sealant technology made asphalt shingle the primary object to become the best option to be used in the steep slope roofing.
Later, in 2009 asphalt shingle incorporate around 57% of the roofing market. Majority portion of the roof tops acquires asphalt shingle roofing in the hurricane prostrate regions, because of its cheaper rates. Stringent building has also acquire the high demands of asphalt shingle.
However, there are some problems in the primary level like design, installation, durability, and manufacturing. By observing the asphalt roofs conditions during the hurricane have identify the loopholes with in these aspects.
Most Common Type of Asphalt shingles:
The most popular types of asphalt shingle which carry glass fiber and paper mats that are waterlogged in hot asphalt and top coated with granules are known as:
- Laminated shingles.
- Three tab shingles.
These laminated shingles have a top and bottom laminate. The top portion of four-sided cut-outs, on the other hand the lower side of the solid shingle. The design of the laminated shingle bestowed the appearance of the wood shingles.
THREE TAB SHINGLE:
Three tab shingles have two joints are cut out of the bottom half of the shingle primarily as a design feature. It is the most fundamental and least expensive. Most of them come with a limited warranty given by the product manufacturer.
Least common types of Asphalt shingles
Different types of asphalt shingles comprises of solid strips and those are without the cut-out or laminates, interlocking shingles typically do not have sealant strips. There are different types of them.
- T- Lock.
- Three or more laminates.
FACTORS THAT CAUSE FAILURES OF ASPHALT SHINGLE:
There are some reason reasons that cause failures of asphalt shingle during asphalt shingle.
- DESIGN DEFICIENCIES:
The cut-out layout if the shingle of the three-tab creates them more enabler of flipping in the wind after sealant failure. However, other shingle designs are mainly vulnerable to wind damage.
The cause of the issue can be insufficient amount of sealant. Those shingles which are bond appropriately when the sealant strip is the rough granule surface on the bottom of the overlaying shingle.
- WEATHERING OF ASPHALT SHINGLE:
By the time asphalt shingle gets old it becomes dry, shrink out and they can be cracky. Sealant strips under the shingles where the sealant strip have a bit bond strength can be easily lifted through hand. Asphalt shingles have the expected life of 20 years. There can be broad variety in expected life which rely on the types of shingle, quality of installation, extent of attic ventilation, geographical location etc.
- INSTALLATION PROBLEM WITH ASPHALT SHINGLE:
One factor includes in wind resistance is regarding the asphalt shingles, that how smartly and accurately these shingles can fit in the deck. Initially, it was explored that the first shingle course were not bonded to the starter shingles. And shingles can be detach in comparatively low wind speed, which can easily be enliven with a finger.
High-fastening can compel asphalt shingle more susceptive to being abolish in the wind. When the nails are not sealed, fasteners which are being induct illegitimately can raise wind related damage, which can lead to shingle slippage. Moreover, when a fastener is being sited at the correct position can pull through resistance almost two times double from when a fastener placed incorrectly.
- MANUFACTURING PROBLEM WITH ASPHALT SHINGLE:
Several roofing industry maintains their standards that compute physical properties of asphalt shingle in context of wind uplift resistance. The American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM 2010). The ASTM D 3161 has create some standard which includes subjecting asphalt shingle test panels to wind speed generated by a fan between 27 m s to 49 m s (60 to 110 mph) for a period of two hours. To pass this test, it is mandatory that no vacant portions of the shingles would elevate enough to stand uprightly by itself, and the sealing aspects must endure entirely.
Shingles normally design in three domains i.e. CLASS D, G, and H if the product which is packed can bear winds up to 40, 54, and 67 m s. ASTM still does not clinch a quality product. These standards are goals of manufacturers and they represent minimum requirements. If the sealants are too powerful can expand shingle splitting whereas weal sealants can make a way to shingle removal during low wind speed.
Wind elevates and destroy asphalt shingle roofing. These damages are understood with the meld of elevated, swapped, removed and creased shingles. Wind damage are mainly the windward sides of a roof, especially along eaves, ridges and top of the valleys. The asphalt shingles with less or no bond are mainly prone to being elevated and damaged by wind.
The factors which contributed in uplifting resistance of asphalt shingle are the type of shingles, there design, quality of manufacturing, degree of weathering, quality of installation.
The absence of shingle’s bond rely on that how shingles were installed as the quantity and quality of the sealant. It has also been observed that roof damages intentionally to brace wind damage. Maintenance can be formed with single shingles or groups’ shingles by standard insert techniques or roofing on the whole slopes can be removed or replaced. To change or replace a roof or slope can be replaced. The repairing, maintenance and replacement highly depend on the economies. The strength of the shingle sealant were regulate by pulling upward. Hence, the appropriate evaluation of the roof through professional roofers can depict mark that the damage is not compatible with wind effects.